Poppet Magick Explained

Poppet Magick Explained

Poppet Magick Explained

Poppet Magick Explained. A Poppet is a small handmade (usually) figurines that can be used as a talisman or in spellwork

Poppets in the popular press tend to be linked with “bad” Witchcraft the Voodoo doll for instance.

And of course there are undoubtedly some who will ignore the Rede’s instructions to “harm none, do what ye will”. But poppets are extremely useful to all Witches and the good aspects far outweigh the bad. No Witch should be without one!

Poppets come in a variety of shapes, sizes and materials. As always, there is no one right way or wrong way to make a poppet. Nowadays most common poppets are filled with herbs and incense. But pure Witchcraft practitioners will still use the practice of urine, blood, fingernails and hair.

CLAY: The clay should be moulded into poppet shape making sure there is a hollow in which to place hair, herbs, nails etc. before being sealed. Features or symbols can be added at this stage by carving with a sharp object. There is nothing wrong with painting instead if you so wish.

CLOTH: Make a suitable template and use this to cut out two pieces of cloth. Stitch the two pieces together until almost sealed and then stuff with herbs or whatever is required for the spell or talisman. Again the poppet can be adorned with symbols or the name of the recipient.

PAPER: Undoubtedly the quickest way of making a poppet! Simply cut the paper into a figure shape and decorate as you desire. A photograph of the intended recipient can be stuck on if desired. Obviously being made of paper it will not be very hardy and will need to be handles carefully.

ROOT: Several roots such as potato, ginseng, carrot (or almost any suitable vegetable) can be carved into the required shape. This is obviously a poppet that is only suitable for short term use as it will rot quite quickly. Once finished it can be used as required but do not do any additional carving or work on it once you have started to use it.

WAX: wax can be carved into shape but it is probably easier (and certainly less messy) to soften it first and mould it into shape in the same way as clay. Do make sure it’s not too hot to handle first though. Again, leave a hollow for some personal token before adorning.
soften candles and shape them into poppet figurine. Rub lavender oil, or similar onto your hands first for ease, and ensure the wax is not too hot. Use small pieces of coal or gems to adorn the poppet. For a more powerful effect use hair, fingernails, or some token or possession of the recipient.

WOOD: Makes for a very durable poppet. Simply carve the wood into a figure shape and glue on something from the recipient. Woodcarving is not as difficult as it sounds provided you take it slow and be careful. The poppet can be adorned as you see fit using paint, pens, crayons etc.


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The boline

The boline

The boline

The boline (also spelled “bolline” or “bolleen”)

The boline is a white-handled ritual knife, one of several magical tools used in Wicca and other practices of ritual magic.

Unlike the athame, which in most traditions is never used for actual physical cutting, the boline is used for cutting cords, wands and herbs, carving candles, etc, and is the practical knife of the craft.
Sometimes, a knife called a kirfane or kerfan is used for roughly the same purposes.

A boline has a small blade, often straight but sometimes (and increasingly commonly) crescent-shaped, and a handle which is traditionally white in colour.
Many of the bolines sold today have a characteristic crescent shape, and are described as being for harvesting herbs.

This crescent shape is reminiscent of the sickle described in the “Key of Solomon”,a medieval grimoire which is one of the sources for modern Wicca.

In the practice of Kitchen Witchcraft (a form of witchcraft where the substitution of mundane items for magical items is encouraged), there is little or no need for a boline as a separate tool from the athame, and some traditions, such as that of Robert Cochrane, specifically prescribe the use of a single knife for both ritual and practical purposes.
In the Eclectic Wicca tradition, opinions vary as to whether the boline is truly a magical tool or is merely of utilitarian use.

The Boline is still a magical tool.

It’s energy is just as important as one’s Athame.
Most people who work with them still consecrate them like any other altar tool and keep them away from the hands of strangers.
The Boline is the knife that you can carry with you out to the garden to cut herbs,
it’s the tool to get down and dirty with. It’s a very practical sort of magical tool.
While one probably only uses one’s Athame (in traditional Wicca at least) during ritual and as a symbolic tool, the Boline is often carried about and used in much more of a practical manner for ritual or spell work.

The Bolines is sold in most stores these days are shaped like a scythe. While a scythe shaped Boline is traditional.

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Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 3

Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 3

Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 3

When witches were brought to trial, one of the first measures was to search for special marks which were believed to betray their true character.

Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 3

These were especially the so-called witches‘ moles, spots of the size of a pea, on which for some reason or other the nerves had lost their sensibility, and where, in consequence, no pain was felt.

These were supposed to have been formed by being punctured, the Evil One performing the operation with a pin of false gold, with his claws or his horns.

Other evidences were found in the peculiar colouring of the eyes, which was said to represent the feet of toads; in the absence of tears when the little gland had been injured, and, above all, in the specific lightness of the body. In order to ascertain the latter, the accused were bound hand and foot crosswise, tied loosely to a rope, and then, three times, dropped into the water. If they remained floating their guilt was established; for either they had been endowed by their Master with safety from drowning, or the water refused to receive them because they had abjured their baptism! It need not be added that the executioners soon found out ways to let their prisoners float or sink as they chose–for a consideration.

Witches’ trials began in the earliest days of Christianity, for the Emperor Valens ordered, as we learn from Ammianus Marcellinus, all the wizards and enchanters to be held to account who had endeavoured by magic art to ascertain his successor.

Several thousands were accused of witchcraft, but the charge was then, as in almost every later age, in most cases nothing more than a pretext for proceedings against obnoxious persons. The next monster process, as it began to be called already in those early days, was the persecution of witches in France under the Merovingians. The child of Chilperic’s wife had died suddenly and under suspicious circumstances, which led to the imprisonment of a prefect, Mummolus, whom the queen had long pursued with her hatred. He was accused of having caused her son’s death by his charms, and was subjected to fearful tortures in company with a number of old women.
Still, he confessed nothing but that the latter had furnished him with certain drugs and ointments which were to secure to him the favour of the king and the queen.

A later trial of this kind, in which for a time calm reason made a firm stand against superstition, but finally succumbed ingloriously, is known as the _Vaudoisie_, and took place in Arras in 1459. It was begun by a Count d’Estampes, but was mainly conducted by a bishop and some eminent divines of his acquaintance, whose inordinate zeal and merciless cruelty have secured to the proceedings a peculiarly painful memory in the annals of the church.

A large number of perfectly innocent men and women were tortured and disgracefully executed, but fortunately the death of the main persecutor, DuBlois, made a sudden end to the existence of witchcraft in that province. One of the most remarkable trials of this kind was caused by a number of little children, and led to most bloody proceedings. It seems that in the year 1669 several boys and girls in the parish of Mora, one of the most beautiful parts of the Swedish province of Dalarne, and famous through the memory of Gustavus Vasa and Gustavus III., were affected by a nervous fever which left them, after their partial recovery, in a state of extreme irritability and sensitiveness. They fell into fainting fits and had convulsions–symptoms which the simple but superstitious mountaineers gradually began to think inexplicable, and hence to ascribe to magic influences. The report spread that the poor children were bewitched, and soon all the usual details of satanic possession were current.

The mountain called Blakulla, in bad repute from of old, was pointed out as the meeting-place of the witches, where the annual sabbath was celebrated, and these children were devoted to Satan.

Church and State combined to bring their great power to bear upon the poor little ones, an enormous number of women, mostly the mothers of the young people, were involved in the charges, and finally fifty-two of the latter with fifteen children were publicly executed as witches, while fifty of the younger were condemned to severe punishment! More than three hundred unfortunate children under fourteen had made detailed confessions of the witches’ sabbath and the ceremonies attending their initiation into its mysteries.

A similar fearful delusion took hold of German children in Würtemberg, when towards the end of the seventeenth century a large number of little boys and girls, none of whom were older than ten years, began to state that they were every night fetched away and carried to the witches’ sabbath. Many were all the time fast asleep and could easily be roused, but a few among them fell regularly into a trance, during which their little bodies became cold and rigid. A commission of great judges and experienced divines was sent to the village to investigate the matter, and found at last that there was no imposture attempted, but that the poor children firmly believed what they stated. It became, however, evident that a few among them had listened to old women’s tales about witches, with eager ears, and, with inflamed imaginations, retailed the account to others, till a deep and painful nervous excitement took hold of their minds and rapidly spread through the community. Many of the children were, as was natural at their age, led by vanity to say that they also had been at the sabbath, while others were afraid to deny what was so positively stated by their companions. Fortunately, the commission consisted, for once, of sensible men who took the right view of the matter, ordered a good whipping here and there, and thus saved the land from the crime of another witches’trial.

Our own experiences in New England, at the time when Sir William Phipps was governor of the colonies, have been forcibly reported by the great Cotton Mather.

Nearly every community had its young men and women who were addicted to the practices of magic; they loved to perform enchantments, to consult sieves and turning keys, and thus were gradually led to attempt more serious and more dangerous practices. In Salem, men and women of high standing and unimpeached integrity, even pious members of the church, were suddenly plagued and tortured by unknown agencies, and at last a little black and yellow demon appeared to them, accompanied by a number of companions with human faces. These apparitions presented to them a book which they were summoned to sign or at least to touch, and if they refused they were fearfully twisted and turned about, pricked with pins, burnt as if with hot irons, bound hand and foot with invisible fetters, and carried away to great distances. Some were left unable to touch food or drink for many days; others, attempting to defend themselves against the demons, snatched a distaff or tore a piece of cloth from them, and immediately these proofs of the real existence of the evil spirits became visible to the eyes of the bystanders.

The magic phenomena attending the disease were of the most extraordinary character. Several men stated that they had received poison because they declined to worship Satan, and immediately all the usual sequences of such treatment appeared, from simple vomiting to most fearful suffering, till counteracting remedies were employed and began to take effect. In other cases, the sufferers complained of burning rags being stuffed into their mouths, and although nothing was seen, burnt places and blisters appeared, and the odour and smoke of smouldering rags began to fill the room. When they reported that they were branded with hot irons, the marks showed themselves, suppuration took place, and scars were formed which never again disappeared during life–and all these phenomena were watched by the eager eyes of hundreds. The authorities, of course, took hold of the matter, and many persons of both sexes and all ages were brought to trial. While they were tortured they continued to have visions of demoniac beings and possessed men and women; when they were standing, blindfolded, in court, felt the approach of those by whom they pretended to be bewitched and plagued, and urgently prayed to be delivered of their presence.

Finally, many were executed, not a few undoubtedly against all justice, but the better sense of the authorities soon saw the futility, if not the wickedness of such proceedings, and an end was made promptly, witchcraft disappearing as soon as persecution relaxed and the sensation subsided.


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Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 1

Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 1

Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 1

Perhaps in no direction has the human mind ever shown greater weakness than in the opinions entertained of witchcraft.

Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 1

If Hecate, the oldest patroness of witches, wandered about at night with a gruesome following, and frightened lovers at their stealthy meeting, or lonely wanderers on open heaths and in dark forests, her appearance was at least in keeping with the whole system of Greek mythology.

Tacitus does not frighten us by telling us that witches used to meet at salt springs, nor the Edda when speaking of the “bearers of witches’ kettles,” against whom even the Salic Law warns all good Christians.

But when the Council of Ancyra, in the fifth century, fulminates its edicts against women riding at night upon weird animals in company with Diana and Herodias, the strange combination of names and the dread penalties threatened, make us almost think of witches as of real and most marvellous beings. When wise councillors of French Parliaments and grey dignitaries of the Holy German Empire sit in judgment over a handful of poor old women, when great English bishops and zealous New England divines condemn little children to death, because they have made pacts with the Devil, attended his sabbaths, and bewitched their peaceful neighbours–then we stand amazed at the delusions, to which the wisest and best among us are liable.

Christianity, it is true, shed for a time such a bright light over the earth, that the works of darkness were abhorred and the power of the Evil One seemed to be broken.

According to the sacred promises that the seed of woman should bruise the serpent’s head. Thus Charlemagne, in his fierce edict issued after the defeat of the Saxons, ordered that death should be inflicted on all who after pagan manner gave way to devilish delusions, and believed that men or women could be witches, persecuted and killed them; or, even went so far as to consume their flesh and give it to others for like purposes! But almost at the same time the belief in the Devil, distinctly maintained in Holy Writ, spread far and wide, and as early as the fourth century diseases were ascribed not to organic causes, but to demoniac influences, and the Devil was once more seen bodily walking to and fro on the earth, accompanied by a host of smaller demons.

It was but rarely that a truly enlightened man dared to combat the universal superstition.

Agobard, archbishop of Lyons, shines like a bright star on the dark sky of the ninth century by his open denunciation of all belief in possession, in the control of the weather or the decision of difficulties by ordeal. For like reasons, we ought to revere the memory of John of Salisbury, who in the twelfth century declared the stories of nightly assemblies of witches, with all their attending circumstances, to be mere delusions of poor women and simple men, who fancied they saw bodily what existed only in their imagination.

The Church hesitated, now requiring her children to believe in a Devil and demons, and now denouncing all faith in supernatural beings. The thirteenth century, by Leibnitz called the darkest of all, developed the worship of the Evil One to its fullest perfection; the writings of St. Augustine were quoted as confirming the fact that demons and men could and did intermarry, and the Djinns of the East were mentioned as spirits who “sought the daughters of men for wives.” The witches’ dance is found in the records of a fearful Auto-da-fè held in Toulouse in the year 1353, and about a century later the Dominican monk, Jaquier, published the first complete work on witches and witchcraft. He represented them as organised–after the prevailing fashion of the day–in a regular guild, with apprentices, companions, and masters, who practised a special art for a definite purpose. It is certainly most remarkable that the same opinion, in all its details, has been entertained in this century even, and by one of the most famous German philosophers, Eschenmayer.

While the zeal and madness of devil-worshippers were growing on one side, persecution became more violent and cruel on the other side, till the trials of witches assumed gigantic proportions and the proceedings were carried on according to a regular method. These trials originated, invariably, with theologians, and although the system was not begun by the Papal government it obtained soon the Pope’s legal sanction by the famous bull of Innocent VIII., _Summis desiderantes_, dated December 4, 1484, and decreeing the relentless persecution of all heretical witches. The far-famed _Malleus maleficatum_ (Cologne, 1489), written by the two celebrated judges of witches, Sprenger and Gremper, and full of the most extraordinary views and statements, reduced the whole to a regular method, and obtained a vast influence over the minds of that age. The rules and forms it prescribed were not only observed in almost all parts of Christendom, but actually retained their force and legality till the end of the seventeenth century.

These views and practices confined to Catholic countries; a hundred and fifty years after the Reformation, a great German jurist and a Protestant, Carpzon, published his _Praxis Criminalis_, in which precisely the same opinions were taught and the same measures were prescribed. The Puritans, it is well-known, pursued a similar plan, and the New World has not been more fortunate in avoiding these errors than the Old World. A curious feature in the above-mentioned works is the fact that both abound in expressions of hatred against the female sex, and still more curious, though disgraceful in the extreme, that the special animosity shown by judges of witchcraft against women is solely based upon the weight which they attached to the purport of the Mosaic inhibition: “Thou shalt not suffer a _witch_ to live” (Exodus xii. 18).

These are dark pages in the history of Christendom, blackened by the smoke of funeral piles and stained with the blood of countless victims of cruel superstition.

For here the peculiarity was that in the majority of cases not the humble sufferers whose lives were sacrificed, but the haughty judges were the true criminals. The madness seems to have been contagious, for Protestant authorities were as bloodthirsty as Catholics; the Inquisition waged for generations unceasing war against this new class of heretics among the nations of the Romanic race.

Germany saw great numbers sacrificed in a short space of time, and in sober England, even, three thousand lost their lives during the Long Parliament alone, while, according to Barrington, the whole number who perished amounted to not less than thirty thousand! If only few were sacrificed in New England, the exception was due more to the sparse population than to moderation; in South America, on the contrary, the persecution was carried on with relentless cruelty. And all this happened while fierce war was raging almost everywhere, so that, while the sword destroyed the men, the fire consumed the women!

Occasionally most startling contrasts would be exhibited by different governments. In the North, James I., claiming to be as wise as Solomon, and more learned than any man in Christendom, imagined that he was persecuted by the Evil One on account of his great religious zeal, and saw in every Catholic an instrument of his adversary. His wild fancy was cunningly encouraged by those who profited by his tyranny, and Catholics were represented as being, one and all, given up to the Devil, the mass and witchcraft, the three unholy allies opposed to the Trinity! In the South, the Republic of Venice, with all its petty tyranny and proverbial political cruelty, stood almost alone in all Christendom as opposed to persecutions of wizards and witches, and fought the battle manfully on the side of enlightenment and Christian charity. The horrors of witch-trials soon reached a height which makes us blush for humanity.


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Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 2

Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 2

Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 2

Among the magic phenomena connected with witchcraft, none is more curious than the so-called witches’ sabbath.

Witch Gothandra – On Witchcraft page 2

This is the formal meeting of all who are in league with Satan, for swearing allegiance to him, to enjoy unholy delights, and to introduce neophytes.

That no such meeting ever really took place, need hardly be stated. The so-called sabbaths were somnambulistic visions, appearing to poor deluded creatures while in a state of trance, which they had produced by narcotic ointments, vile decoctions, or even mere mental effort. For the most skilful among the witches could cause themselves to fall into the Witches’ Sleep, as they called this trance, whenever they chose; others had to submit to tedious and often abominable ceremonies.

The knowledge of simples, which was then very general, was of great service to cunning impostors; thus, it was well known that certain herbs, like aconite, produce in sleep the sensation of flying, and they were, of course, diligently employed. Hyosciamus and Taxus, hypericum and asafoetida were great favourites, and physicians made experiments with these salves to try their effect upon the system. Laguna, for instance, physician to Pope Julius III., once applied an ointment which he had obtained from a wizard, to a woman, who thereupon fell into a sleep of thirty-six hours’ duration, and upon being aroused, bitterly complained of his cruelty in tearing her from the embraces of her husband.

The Marquis d’Agent tells us in his _Lettres Juifs_ , that the celebrated Gassendi discovered a drug which a shepherd used to take whenever he wished to go to a witches’ assembly. He won the man’s confidence, and, pretending to join him in his journey, persuaded him to swallow the medicine in his presence. After a few minutes, the shepherd began to stagger like an intoxicated person, and then fell into profound sleep, during which he talked wildly. When he roused himself again many hours afterwards, he congratulated the physician on the good reception he had met at Satan’s court, and recalled with delight the pleasant things they had jointly seen and enjoyed! The symptoms of the witches’ sleep differ, however; while the latter is, in some cases, deep and unbroken, in other cases the sleepers become rigid and icy cold, or they are subject to violent spasms and utter unnatural sounds in abundance.

The sleep differs, moreover, from that of possessed people in the consciousness of bodily pain which bewitched people retain, while the possessed become insensible. Invariably the impression is produced that they meet kindred spirits at some great assembly, but the manner of reaching it differs greatly. Some go on foot; but as Abaris already rode on a spear given to him by Apollo (Iamblichus De Vita, Pyth. c. 18), others ride on goats.

In Germany a broomstick, a club, or a distaff, became suitable vehicles, provided they had been properly anointed.

In Scotland and Sweden, the chimney is the favourite road, in other countries no such preference is shown over doors and windows. The expedition, however joyous it may be, is always very fatiguing, and when the revellers awake they feel like people who have been dissipated. The meetings differ in locality according to size: whole provinces assemble on high, isolated mountains, among which the Brocken, in the Hartz Mountains, is by far the most renowned; smaller companies meet near gloomy churches or under dark trees with wide-spreading branches.

In Italy, the witches loved to assemble under the famous walnut tree near Benevent, which was already to the Longobards an object of superstitious veneration, since here, in ancient times, the old divinities were worshipped, and afterwards the _strighe_ were fond of meeting. In France they had a favourite resort on the Puy de Dôme,near Clermont, and in Spain on the sands near Seville, where the _hechizeras_ held their sabbaths. The Hekla, of Iceland, also passes with the Scandinavians for a great meeting-place of witches, although, strangely enough, the inhabitants of the island have no such tradition.

It is, however, clear that in all countries where witchcraft prospered, the favourite places of meeting were always the same as those to which, in ancient times, the heathens had made pilgrimages in large numbers, in order to perform their sacrifices, and to enjoy their merry-makings.
In precisely the same manner the favourite seasons for these ghastly meetings correspond almost invariably with the times of high festivals held in heathen days, and hence, they were generally adopted by the early Christians, with the feast and saints’ days of Christendom. Thus, the old Germans observed, when they were still pagans, the first of May for two reasons: as a day of solemn judgment, and as a season for rejoicing, during which prince and peasant joined in celebrating the return of summer with merry songs and gay dances around the May-pole.

The witches were nothing loth to adopt the day for their own festivities also, and added it to the holidays of St. John the Baptist and St. Bartholomew, on which, in like manner, anciently the holding of public courts had brought together large assemblies. The meetings, however, must always fall upon a Thursday, from a determined, though yet unexplained association of witchcraft with the old German god of thunder, Donar, who was worshipped on the Blocksberg, and to whom a goat was sacrificed–whence also the peculiar fondness of witches for that animal. The hours of meeting are invariably from eleven o’clock at night to one or two in the morning.

The assembly consists, according to circumstances, of a few hundred or of several thousands, but the female sex always largely prevails. For this fact, the famous text-book of judges of witchcraft, the _Malleus_, assigned not less than four weighty reasons. Women, it said, are more apt to be addicted to the fearful crime than men because, in the first place, they are more credulous; secondly, in their natural weakness they are more susceptible; thirdly, they are more imprudent and rash, and hence always ready to consult the Devil, and fourthly and mainly, _femina_ comes from _fe_, faith and _minus_, less, hence they have less faith!

The guests appear generally in their natural form, but at times they are represented as assuming the shape of various animals; the Devil’s followers having a decided preference for goats and for monkeys, although the latter is a passion of more recent date. The crowd is naturally in a state of incessant flowing and ebbing; the constant coming and going, crowding and pressing admits of not a moment’s quiet and even here it is proven that the wicked have neither rest nor peace.
Among this crowd flocks are seen, consisting of toads and watched over by boys and girls; in the centre sits Satan on a stone, draped in weird majesty, with terrible but indistinct features, and uttering short commands with an appalling voice of unnatural and unheard of music. A queen in great splendour may sit by his side, promoted to the throne from a place among the guests. Countless demons, attending to all kinds of extraordinary duties, surround their master; or, dash through the crowd scattering indecent words and gestures in all directions.

English witches meet, also, innumerable kittens on the Sabbath and show the scars of wounds inflicted by the malicious animals. Every visitor must pay his homage to the lord of the feast, which is done in an unmentionable manner; and yet they receive nothing in return–according to their unanimous confessions–except unfulfilled promises and delusive presents. Even the dishes on the table are but shams; there is neither salt nor bread to be found there. They are bound, besides, to pledge themselves to the performance of a certain number of wicked works, which are distributed over the week, so that the first days are devoted to ordinary sins and the last to crimes of special horror. Music of surpassing weirdness is heard on all sides, and countless couples whirl about in restless, obscene dances; the couples joining back to back and trying in vain to see each other’s faces. Very often young children are brought up by their mothers to be presented to the Master; when this is done, they are set to attend the flocks of toads till the ninth year, when they are called up by the Queen to abjure their Christian faith and are regularly enrolled among witches.

The descriptions of minor details vary, of course according to the individual dispositions of the accused, whose confessions are invariably uniform as to the facts stated heretofore. The coarser minds naturally see nothing but the grossest indecency and the vilest indulgences, while to more refined minds the apparent occurrences appear in a light of greater delicacy; they hear sweet music and witness nothing but gentle affection and brotherly love. But in all cases these witches’ sabbaths become a passion with the poor deluded creatures; they enjoy there a paradise of delight, –whether they really indulge in sensual pleasure or surrender mind and will so completely to the unhallowed power that they cease to wish for anything else, and are plunged in vague, unspeakable pleasure. And yet not even the simple satisfaction of good looks has granted them; witches are as ugly as angels are fair; they emit an evil odour and inspire others with unconquerable repugnance.

How exclusively all these descriptions of witches‘ sabbaths have their origin in the imagination of the deluded women is seen from the fact that they vary consistently with the prevailing notions of those by whom they are entertained; with coarse peasants, the meetings are rude feasts full of obscene enjoyments; with noble knights, they become the roving’s of the wild huntsman, or a hellish court under the guise of a Venus’ mountain; with ascetic monks and nuns, a subterranean convent filled with vile blasphemies of God and the saints. This only is common to all such visions, that they are always conceived in a spirit of bitter antagonism to the Church: all the doctrines not only but also the ceremonies of the latter are here travestied.

The sabbath has its masses, but the host is desecrated, its holy water obtained from the lord of the feast;

its host and its candles are black, and the _Ite missa est_ of the dismissing priest is changed into: “Go to the Devil!” Here, also, confession is required; but, the penitent confesses having omitted to do evil and being guilty of occasional acts of mercy and goodness; the penalty imposed is to neglect one or the other of the twelve commandments.


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